After UNOSOM

 

After the withdrawal of the United States followed by the United Nations, Somalia reverted its pre-colonial past, consisting of a mosaic of independent clans with different laws and rulers, each with its own' militia'. In the north, the Issaq clan proclaimed the indenperndence of former British Somaliland; In the northeast and parts of Mudug inhabited by Majerteen there is talk of establishing a Msjerteen state to be called puntland, whereas in the central region, the Hawiye faction s are engaged in mortal conflict for control of the Hawiye homeland .The inter-riveine region is the only one controlled by the Habaregidir, and the Juba valley by Marehan, Ogaden and Majertee militias. This includes the ports of Marka, Barava and Kismayu. In September 1995, Five months after the withdrawal of UNOSOM, the hinterlands of the region -Bay and bakool- with the country's most valuable livestock and agriculture resources, were invade by General Aided and remain under the control of the Habargedir clans until now.

During the period of UNOSOM, the people of inter-riverine region established their own regional and district administration and a police force Organazized by the SDM, the Bonka Conference of 7 to 11 March 1193 defined an approach for reconciliation. One of the resolutions of the Conference state:

In the light of the current political realities of Somalia, where parts of the country have declared secession, and others are talking about the possibility of federation or regional autonomy future reconciliation process should accommodate all these views and put them into perspective- - -Somalia should focus on efforts to reconstitute itself by working on its grain realty, forgetting about the past myths which led to the current humiliating political conditions- - - The international Community should support Somalis in putting their nation back together in whatever from of government they choose: a unified state, a confederation or federated state, or even several independent states.

In 1994, Baidoa was no longer' the city of theath. The region's markets offered a range of food and clothing, even quality and sophisticated electronic goods. Hudur, the capital city of Bokool region, became a centre of trade with Kenya, Ethiopia and Djibouti. Here the roads people and goods were safe, and there were even some landing strips serving international flights.

In February 1995, Baidoa hosted the Pan-Digil and Mirifle Congress, which lasted until 19th March 1995. It was the first its kind in the recent history of the region. Participant included traditional rules (Sultans, Malaqs) of all Digil and Mirifle clans, religious, busness men and women, intellectuals, and representatives of various clan' of the region. The major purpose of the congress was to unite the inter-riverine commonalities and To voice their demand for regional autonomy. The congress recommended the formation of four federated states in Somalia: a Riverine State in south for the Reewing people: a Somaliland State In the north for Issaq: a Central state for the Hawiye: and a Cape State in the northeast for the Darood.Territorially, the Reewin State comprised the pre-in dependant regions of Upper Juba, Lower juba and Banadir. The conference also elected two councils for the Riverin State. The Supreme Admintrative Council of 175members, With Dr.Hassan Sheikh Ibrahim'Hassey' as chairman, and Supreme Traditional Council of 51 members, with Haji Mukhtar Malaaq Hassan as chairman. The resolutions of the conference were a direct challenge to the contending warlords of the region, particularly General Aideed in the Shabelle alley, and General Morgan in the Juba Valley. Six months later, Aided forces invaded Baidoa, and the short-lived experiment in self-rules was aborted.